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San Jose was officially founded as California's first civilian settlement on 29 November 1777, as the Pueblo de San José de Guadalupe by José Joaquín Moraga, under orders of Antonio María de Bucareli y Ursúa, Viceroy of New Spain.
San Jose served as a strategic settlement along El Camino Real, connecting the military fortifications at the Monterey Presidio and the San Francisco Presidio, as well as the California mission network.
By 1845, the population of the pueblo had increased to 900, primarily due to American immigration.
Foreign settlement in San Jose and California was rapidly changing Californian society, bringing expanding economic opportunities and foreign culture.
On 11 July 1846, with the onset of the Mexican–American War, Captain Thomas Fallon conquered San Jose in the name of the Bear Flag Revolt for the California Republic, officially ending Mexican rule in Alta California.
In 1848, the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo formally ceded California to the United States, as part of the Mexican Cession.
On 15 December 1849, San Jose became the capital of the unorganized territory of California.
With California's Admission to the Union on 9 September 1850, San Jose became the state's first capital. It was incorporated on the same day as San Diego and Benicia; together, these three cities followed Sacramento as California's earliest incorporated cities.
San Jose was founded on 29 November 1777, as the Pueblo de San José de Guadalupe, the first city founded in the Californias.officially the City of San José, is an economic, cultural, and political center of Silicon Valley and the largest city in Northern California.